by Barry Carter
Image by Anant Nath Sharma
The, possibly, erroneous assumption that these materials are monatomic is intimately involved with our theory about how superconductivity works with what we call the ORMUS materials, as you will soon see.
According to conventional superconductivity theory, a material must be in a solid crystalline matrix in order to become a superconductor. Type I superconductors are single element metals which are cooled to near absolute zero in order to achieve this crystalline matrix state. Type II superconductors can achieve an appropriate crystalline state at a much higher temperature (near the temperature of liquid nitrogen; still colder than any natural temperature on earth). They do this by creating a sort of “egg crate” crystalline spacing using a variety of elements in a molecular compound like yttrium, barium, copper oxide.
The reason that the crystalline matrix is required is because the electrons in the superconductor-candidate material must be able to pair up into what physicists call “Cooper pairs”. The Cooper pairing of electrons apparently allows the electrons to store the energy, which is put into the superconductor, indefinitely.
I imagine that an electron Cooper pair is like a little circuit or storage battery which can store a very large amount of energy.
As these Cooper paired “circuits” get charged up, an energy “field” grows around them. This energy field excludes other fields (like magnetic) fields and, probably, gravity. What this means is that a ” charged” superconductor will exclude a magnetic field to the extent that the superconductor will levitate over a magnet. This is called the Meissner effect and is used as the main indicator that superconductivity is occurring.
A crystalline matrix provides the proper spacing so that the electrons can pair up without forming chemical bonds. With type I and type II superconductors this matrix is crucial.
A colleague postulated (in 1996) that the ORMUS elements can be single unit superconductors because their electrons pair up within the single atomic or diatomic unit. You can read this colleagues description of his theory at:
When a group of particles “condense” into a single unified state capable of superconductor and superfluid behaviors they become a special state of matter called a “Bose-Einstein condensate” (BEC). The BEC state in whole atoms was recently achieved in the laboratory by cooling a group of atoms to within a millionth of a degree of absolute zero.
The particles, which are capable of quantum behaviors like superconductivity and superfluidity, are called “bosons”. A boson must be composed of an even number of sub-particles. (particles with an odd number of sub particles are called “fermions”.) This means that a single unit superconductor must be a boson.
Since metallic gold, for example, is a fermion–with an odd number (79) of protons and electrons–it theoretically could not become a monatomic superconductor. In order for a gold atom to become a single unit superconductor it would have to form a Bose-Einstein condensate with at least one other gold atom. Of course, then it would not be monatomic gold since two atoms of gold would be “condensed” into a single unit structure with 158 protons and electrons.
You can read about how this principle was demonstrated with helium 3 on the American Institute of Physics web page at:
Here is the quote from that page:
“A superfluid is a liquid that flows without viscosity or inner friction. For a liquid to become superfluid, the atoms or molecules making up the liquid must be cooled or “condensed” to the point at which they all occupy the same quantum state. A liquid of helium-3, an atom whose nucleus is made up of an odd number of particles, is a type of particle known as a fermion. Groups of fermions are not allowed to occupy the same quantum state.
By cooling the liquid to a low enough temperature, helium-3 atoms can pair up (left panel). The number of particles in each nucleus adds up to an even number, making it a type of particle known as a boson. Groups of bosons can fall into the same quantum state, and therefore superfluidity can be achieved. Helium-4 (middle panel), a boson, does not need to pair up to form a superfluid; groups of helium-4 atoms condense into the superfluid state at about 2 degrees above absolute zero. Superfluidity, especially the kind that exists in helium-3, is analogous to conventional low-temperature superconductivity, in which electrons flow through certain metals and alloys without resistance. In a superconductor (right panel), electrons, which are fermions, pair up in the metal crystal to form “Cooper pairs,” bosons which can then condense into a superconducting state.”
ORMUS gold has demonstrated superconductive properties in a non-crystalline form. You can see a short video that I took of some ORMUS gold that we made from metallic gold at:
This video demonstrates magnetic levitation of particles of ORMUS gold. Since these particles are obviously not in a rigid crystalline matrix we can take this as evidence that we have a bosonic form of gold (probably a condensed di-atom or larger).
From this experiment and others I think that it is fair to presume that the ORMUS elements are non-crystalline superconductors.
The magnetic vortex traps that I have designed also depend on the superconductive magnetic levitation of the ORMUS elements. You can find several magnetic trap designs on my web site at:
Since these magnetic traps work on water and air (which are both fluids) this is further evidence that these elements are single unit superconductors which do not require a crystalline matrix. Therefore, we should probably refer to them as type III superconductors.
Their magnetic levitation and gravity nulling properties appear to be related to what I call “spin coherence”. You can read my spin coherence “theory” at:
You can read more about why I do not believe that these substances are generally monatomic at: